An assessment of the availability of water sources and hygiene practices in response to the Cholera outbreak in Harare City, Zimbabwe, 2018
Tsitsi Juru1,&, Tsitsi Kagodora1 , Christyna Tambanemoto1, Tendai Chipendo1, Tapiwa Dhliwayo1 , Memory Mapfumo1, Arthur Kashiri1, Notion. Tafara Gombe1 , Gerald Shambira1, Ruby Tapera2, Mufuta Tshimanga1
1 Department of Community Medicine, University of Zimbabwe, 2City Health Directorate, City of Harare, Zimbabwe
& Corresponding author
Tsitsi Juru, Department of Community Medicine, University of Zimbabwe,
Received: 30/1/19 Accepted: 16/4/19 Published: 23/4/19
CITATION: Tsitsi Juru et al. An assessment of the availability of water sources and hygiene practices in response to the Cholera outbreak in Harare City, Zimbabwe, 2018. J Interv Epidemiol Public Health. 2019 Apr; 2(1).
©Tsitsi Juru et al. Journal of Interventional Epidemiology and Public Health. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution International 4.0 License (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Background : Cholera is an acute diarrheal disease that has a substantial impact on public health.
Harare city reported the first cholera case on the 5th of September 2018, and by the 23rd of September 2018, 6403 cases and 43 deaths had been reported (case fatality rate 0.67%). Health promotion on hygiene practices was given through social media and door to door campaigns; however, cases continued to increase in the city. We therefore assessed the availability of water sources and hygiene practises in Harare city. Methods: We conducted a mixed methods study that combined quantitative and qualitative methods. A structured researcher-administered questionnaire and an observational checklist were used to collect data. Systematic random sampling of 156 dwellings was done in Glen View 3, 8 and Budiriro 1 and 2 was done. Epi Info TM statistical software was used to capture data from records and to generate, frequencies, means and proportions. Results: Forty-eight percent (74/156) and 34% (53/156) of the respondents used borehole water and piped water as their main sources of drinking water respectively . Sixty percent (93/156) of the households did not use any water treatment method. Sixty-two percent (96/156) of the respondents washed their hands after using the toilet whilst fifty-two percent (81/156) of the households did not have clean toilets. A proportion of 63% (98/156) of the households did not have soap for hand washing. The predominant methods of refuse disposal were; disposal on a dumpsite (52%) and burning (47%). Conclusion: The main source of drinking water in Glenview and Budiriro was borehole water; inadequate sanitation and hygiene practices were being practiced in Harare city. The city Council should consistently provide residents with safe and clean water and should ensure consistent refuse removal in the city.
Key words: Cholera Outbreak, Water sources, Hygiene practices, Harare City