Uptake of HIV testing and its associated factors among long-distance truck drivers in Zambia, 2015

Lwito Salifya Mutale1,2,3,&, Mumbi Chola3, Gershom Chongwe3, Webster Kasongo4, David Kasanga Mwakazanga4, Maurice Owiny5, Olufemi Olamide Ajumobi 6,7, Choolwe Nkwemu Jacobs3 

1Field Epidemiology Training Program,Zambia

2Ministry of Health, Zambia

3Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, School of Public Health, University of Zambia

4Tropical Diseases Research Center, Zambia

5African Field Epidemiology Network, Nairobi, Kenya

6African Field Epidemiology Network Nigerian Country Office, Abuja

7Nigeria Field Epidemiology and Laboratory Training Programme, Abuja

&Corresponding Author

Lwito Salifya Mutale, University of Zambia, Lusaka, Zambia


Received: 22/10/18   Accepted: 10/11/18   Published: 13/11/18  

CITATION: Lwito Salifya Mutale, Mumbi Chola, Gershom Chongwe, Webster Kasongo, David Kasanga Mwakazanga, Maurice Owiny, et al. Uptake of HIV testing and its associated factors among long-distance truck drivers in Zambia, 2015. J Interv Epidemiol Public Health. 2018 Nov;1(1).

© Lwito Salifya Mutale1et al. Journal of Interventional Epidemiology and Public Health. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution International 4.0 License (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


Background: Globally, long distance truckers have been reported to have an important role in the spread of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) including Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV). Evidence on the uptake of HIV testing among this key population is not well established. We analysed the 2015 Behavioral Surveillance Survey (BSS) data to determine the uptake of HIV testing and assess factors associated with HIV testing among Long Distance Truck Drivers (LDTDs) in Zambia. Methods: We analysed secondary data from the 2015 BSS. The BSS was carried out in five of the 10 Corridors of Hope (COH) III project sites (Kazungula, Solwezi, KapiriMposhi, Chipata and Chirundu) among male LDTDs. The Zambian Corridors of Hope HIV and AIDS Prevention Initiative project was formed to address rising rates of HIV and other sexually transmitted infections. The BSS study included LDTDs from truck depots, border sites, Zambia Revenue Authority offices and those parked along the road side. Association between independent variables and history of HIV testing was determined by bivariate logistic analysis. Multivariable logistic regression was done to control for confounders. Results: Overall, 1,386 male LDTDs were included in the study, with mean age of 38 years. Over 75% reported being currently married and living with a spouse while 82% reported having only one wife. Uptake for ever having tested for HIV among LDTDs was 83%. Having a relative or friend who was infected or who had succumbed to HIV/AIDS (adjusted OR: 0.61, 95%CI: 0.40 – 0.92) and having two or more wives (adjusted OR: 0.4, 95%CI: 0.2 – 0.6) were independent inhibitory factors for uptake of HIV testing. Conclusion: Knowledge of someone infected or died of HIV and having at least two wives were drivers for HIV testing. These findings suggest the need to implement focused Behavioral Change interventions and messages to increase uptake of HIV testing among LDTDs.

Download Manuscript